While the human habitats were present at the wider city area since the Neolithic (including the well-preserved Roman town of Andautonia), its modern name was recorded for the first time in the 11th century (1094). In that year the Hungarian King Ladislaus founded a bishopric on the Kaptol hill. An independent secular community developed on a neighbouring hill Gradec (Griè). The settlements suffered greatly under the Mongol invasion of 1242, but when they abruptly left, King Bela IV declared Gradec a royal autonomous city in order to attract foreign artisans.
During the 14th and 15th centuries, the two communities actively tried to best each other - economically and politically. The bishopric would excommunicate Gradec which might respond by burning Kaptol. They only worked together for the occasional large commercial venture - such as the three yearly fairs each lasting two weeks. These two mediaeval hills, Gradec and Kaptol, finally merged into one community, Zagreb, in the early 17th century. They now form the cultural centre of the modern city (the economic and traffic centre shifted southwards since). The bishopric of Kaptol since became the Archbishopric of Zagreb.
The construction of the railway embankment (1860) enabled the old suburbs, which did not represent an urban whole up to then, to merge gradually into Donji Grad, characterized by a regular block pattern. During the Austro-Hungarian era Zagreb was called by its German name Agram.
Working-class quarters emerged between the railway and the Sava and residential quarters on the hills of the southern slopes of Medvednica between the two World Wars.
The blocks between the railway and the Sava were built after the Second World War followed from the mid-1950s by new residential areas south of the Sava river, the so-called Novi Zagreb (New Zagreb). The city also expanded towards the west and the east and "consumed" what were once mere villages at Dubrava, Podsused, Jarun, Blato etc.
The cargo railway hub and the international airport Pleso were built south of the Sava river. The biggest industrial zone (itnjak) in the southeast represents an extension of the industrial zones on the eastern outskirts of the city, between the Sava and the Prigorje region.
Urbanized lines of settlements connect Zagreb with the centers in its surroundings: Sesvete, Zapreiæ, Samobor, Dugo Selo and Velika Gorica. Sesvete is the closest one to become a part of the conurbation and is in fact already included in the City of Zagreb rather than the Zagreb county (which excludes the city).
An aerial view of the Zagreb History
AD 879 The Zagreb area, between the rivers Sava and Drava, becomes part of the Croatian state under the rule of King Tomislav, crowned as the first Croatian king in 925
1094 The Hungarian King Ladislas establishes the Zagreb Diocese
1242 The Croatian-Hungarian King Bela IV grants the Golden Bull to Gradec (the Upper Town), as a token of appreciation for the citizens who provided him shelter during the Tatarian invasion
1355 Mention of the first pharmacy
1557 Another threat to the city - Turkish invasions. The first mention of Zagreb as the capital of Croatia and Slavonia
1607 Foundation of the Jesuit college on Kaptol (part of Zagreb dominated by the clergy)
1664 Foundation of the first printing house by the Jesuits
1669 The Croatian-Hungarian King Leopold I grants the right to the Royal Academy to be transformed into a university
1771 The first weekly paper published in Latin - Ephemerides Zagrebienses
1834 The first permanent theater opens on the southern side of St. Mark's Square
1850 Zagreb becomes a single administrative unit by unification of Kaptol and Gradec
1866 Supported by Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer of Ðakovo, the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts is founded as the central academy of all South Slavs; to be later renamed into the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
1880 A severe earthquake strikes the area of Zagreb
1896 The first movie projection
1901 The first car in the streets of Zagreb
1909 The first trade exhibition
1913 Completion of the building of the National University Library
1917 Foundation of the Zagreb Medical School
1926 The first radio station starts broadcasting (the first in this part of Europe)
1956 The first broadcast of Zagreb Television
1987 The University Games
1990 The first session of the Croatian Parliament (Sabor) after the first free, democratic multi-party elections on 30 May
1991 On June 25 Croatia ceded from the former Yugoslav Federation and became an independent state
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