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Dalmatia (Croatian Dalmacija, Italian Dalmazia) is a region of Croatia on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, spreading between the island of Pag in the northwest and the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. The inner Dalmatia (Dalmatinska Zagora) stretches from up to fifty kilometres inland in the north to just a few kilometres in the south.
The County of Split and Dalmatia, that together with the sea covers an area of 14,500 km2, has a population of 500,000. Today it is divided in 10 towns and 36 municipalities. The city of Split with a population of 223,000 is the centre of this County.
Keeping on with the tradition of the administrative division of Croatian territory into counties, that was for the first time in Croatia mentioned in the 10th century, the County of Split and Dalmatia has rightly gained the title of the largest, and as many consider it to be, the most beautiful Croatian county. It is almost difficult to distinguish the factors that contribute to its beauty: nature, history, cultural heritage or its people. In the County that takes great pride in hundreds of kilometres of coastline, mountain peaks and rich tradition woven into each and every pore of life, each of these factors is at least partly responsible for its uniqueness.
The history of this area dates back to the very distant past when the Stone-Age man left the first traces on the Adriatic Coast. The remains on the island of Hvar are 5,000 years old and are dated to the New Stone Age. The archaeological remains from the islands of Brac and Hvar, Split, Trogir and Sinj speak of activities in these areas during the Bronze and Iron Age, and contribute to the beauty of historical complexity. The first millennium before Christ was the period of Illyrian tribes, and the Dalmatia stood out in significance, whereas the Antiquity was characterized by the Greek colonization of these areas. In 389 B.C. Greek settlers founded the town of Issa on the island of Vis, and in 385 the very strong settlement Pharaohs sprang up in the northern cove on the island of Hvar. On land, Greek settlers founded Tragurion (Trogir) and Epetion (Stobrec).
Under the Roman rule, that directed the organization of life along the entire coast, many present-day towns were founded and already then connected with roads, that even today keep those same directions.
Salona, the onetime port of the Illyrian tribe of Dalmatia, became the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia. At the time it had 65,000 inhabitants and because of its administrative importance was the meeting point of passengers and tradesmen from the entire Mediterranean.
Salona bears testimony of the earliest traces of Christianity on the east Adriatic Coast. Religion was the reason why many lives were taken, mostly during the rule of Emperor Diocletian who in 303 issued a decree forbidding Christianity. The bishop of Salona and Syrian martyr Domnio (Dujam in Croatian) was the victim of prosecuting of Christianity. In memory of this bishop he is still celebrated as the patron-saint of Split.
Diocletian, a former soldier, probably a native of Salona, who was proclaimed Roman Emperor in 284, had a magnificent palace built from 295 to 305 (nucleus of today's Split) in the vicinity of Salona. When the agreed period of the rule of two emperors came to an end, he retired to the palace where he spent the last ten years of his life.
The Croats settled these areas in the first decades of the 7th century, founding a state in the hinterland with Solin and later Knin as one of its centres.
In those early centuries this region was exposed to Venetians doges and Hungarian rulers, and Klis was for several centuries the centre of the Croatian Primorska Zupanija (Lateral district). During the next centuries the inhabitants experienced the municipal system of developed European states, but also Venetian rule, Turkish attacks, and the very short period of French rule.
At the first democratic elections in 1990 the people of the County of Split and Dalmatia expressed the unanimous desire of the Croatian people for the independent Republic of Croatia.
Historical changes have created an exceptional cultural heritage, styles and treasures that the County of Split and Dalmatia unselfishly presents to all its chance travellers. One of the most significant features of this area are the precious stone structures. An impressive masterpiece in stone is also the portal of the Cathedral in Trogir that was cut out by master Radovan in 1240. Remarkable works recorded in stone in Split are those by Gothic sculptor Bonino of Milan and our greatest Gothic and Renaissance master Juraj Dalmatinac. In Trogir, there are works by his contemporaries Andrija Alesi and Nicholas of Florence. The doors of the Cathedral in Split made of walnut wood by Andrija Buvina in 1214 are considered an impressive work of art in European Romanesque wood sculpture and a masterpiece left to Split.
In the art of painting, painters mostly earned fame with their paintings in churches and chapels. The paintings of the Madonna and saints by Blaz Jurjev Trogiranin and Dujam Vuskovic remain as permanent heritage on church ceilings and altars. Such an art tradition laid the foundation for a series of great painters of the more recent period, such as Emanuel Vidovi who with his dark landscapes and interiors became the most significant Croatian painter of the late 19th and first half of 20th century.
Respecting the tradition, rich cultural and historical heritage, generations of people from the County of Split and Dalmatia worked much beyond the County's territory. Thus, our greatest sculptor was Ivan Mestrovic (1883-1962), a native of Otavice near Drnis, whose works are found in the world's most notable museums and galleries. By the deed of gift of this great artist, the collection of his works is exhibited in the Mestrovic Gallery in Split.
Artistic achievements that always found here inexhaustible inspiration, were followed by the first preserved monuments of literacy in Croatia. The Split Evangeliary, the oldest book in Croatia dating back to the 6th century, is today kept in the Cathedral in Split. As early as the 13th century, archdeacon Tom recorded events, life and customs of that time.
In 1521, the poem Judita written by Marko Marulic from Split was published in Croatian, which earned the author the title of the father of Croatian literature. His works in Latin have been published and translated into many languages. Poets from Hvar, Hanibal Lucic and Petar Hektorovic wrote verses in Croatian, and so created a basis for those that would in the centuries to come describe the beauties of the karst, sea and Zagora as did Vladimir Nazor, Ranko Marinkovic, Tin Ujevic, Dinko Simunovic, Josip Pupacic.
The list of great names connected with drama, opera and ballet coming from even the smallest villages of this County, is a long one, because this County has a rich dramatic tradition that dates back to the theatre in Hvar established in 1612, then the building of the Croatian National Theatre in Split from 1893. Simply, the County of Split and Dalmatia has always been an area that has inspired everyone and left no one indifferent.
Sport is an inseparable part of the County's past and present, the sportsmen from these clubs are holders of numerous Olympic, world and European medals. With their top results, they have spread the fame about this area to all continents making it a phenomenon of sports success.
The County of Split and Dalmatia, that encompasses central Dalmatia, aside from a rich history has a secure future as well. Strong branches of economy: shipping, shipbuilding industry, tourism, agriculture and trade guarantee this. Although it was not in the centre of traffic routes for years, impoverished by war so that development was rendered impossible, these branches of economy have proved their high resistance.
Industrial development relies on three shipyards, cement, chemical and textile industry, building trade and stone-masonry, and well developed shipping industry.
Among the branches of economy, tourism definitely stands out as the most promising. This County disposes of 25,000 beds in hotels and 72,000 beds in private apartments and campsites. There are modern marinas with 1000 berths in this County.
A very significant factor in economic development, particularly tourism is the Airport in Kastela, which accounts for the greatest part of tourist traffic, but also the airport on the island of Brac that has brought the islands closer to European tourists.
The County of Split and Dalmatia has great hopes in its immense advantages - preserved natural environment, clean sea and mild Mediterranean climate, therefore it both sees and builds its future only in accordance with nature's harmony, not affecting it the least.
Transport | The most comfortable manner of travel Dalmatia is by car, so that you can stop whenever you want. The cities and villages have no direct connections by train, but there are direct bus connections between practically all cities. The most important islands and coast places are linked by regular ferry services.
Vineyards | Like the rest of Central Europe, grape cultivation in Croatia pre-dated the Romans by several hundred years, and grew more substantial and organized under the Roman Empire. Vineyards and winemaking survived invasions by marauding tribes and the anti-alcohol policies of the Ottoman Empire. The most highly regarded Dalmatian reds are made from Plavac Mali, the focus of Mike Grgichs efforts and the grape used in two wines with long-standing reputations, Postup and Dingac. Initially believed to be the source of Californias Zinfandel, DNA testing has demonstrated that Plavac Mali is an offshoot of the true original Zinfandel, a little-planted grape from the same area named Crljenik Kasteljanski (pronounced "tzurlyenik kashtelyansky").
For such a small land, Croatia has produced more than its share of grapes, winemakers and wine. Current production is over 50 million bottles a year, most of them selling at bargain prices, and many of them well worth checking out.
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